口腔上膛疼痒:成功的自主学者的15个方面

来源:百度文库 编辑:学校大全网 时间:2022/08/17 18:07:49
杰夫.科布
The “why” of self-directed learning is survival—your own survival as an individual, and also the survival of the human race.  Clearly, we are not talking here about something that would be nice or desirable….We are talking about a basic human competence—the ability to learn on one’s own—that has suddenly become a prerequisite for living in this new world. – Malcom Knowles, 1975

自主学习得以存在的原因,正如你作为一个个体的存在以及人类的存在一样。很显然,我们这边所要讨论的不是一件很美好或者很诱惑的事儿,而是一项人类一项基本能力——自主学习能力,这项能力已经成为当今世界生存所必须的一项先决条件。——马尔科姆.诺尔斯,1975

While lifelong learning and self-directed learning are not equivalent, they overlap substantially. I think the following points apply equally to both:

虽然终身学习并不等于自主学习,它们之间仍然有很多地方相重合。我觉得以下几方面对于两者均适用。

1. Takes initiative

1. 积极主动

This first one is core to the entire concept of “self-directed.”  The successful self-directed learner does not wait for someone else to say “you must learn this.”

 这一点是自主这整个概念的核心。 凡是成功的自主学者,都不会等到别人来督促你必须学。

2. Is comfortable with independence

2. 自在自主

Self-directed learners do not always act autonomously or independently. Indeed, increasingly they must cultivate their networks to learn effectively. Nonetheless, successful self-directed learners know how to be self-reliant.

自主学者并不总是独立自主地学习。事实上,他们必须通过更多地建立自己的关系网络进行高效的学习。然而,成功的自主学者了解如何自立。

3. Is persistent

3. 坚持

Learning takes time, it takes repetition, it takes practice. Successful self-directed learners stick to it.

学习需要时间,需要不断地重复以及联系。成功的自主学者懂得坚持。

4. Accepts responsibility

4. 承担责任

The successful self-directed learner embraces responsibility for doing the work of learning and doing it well.

 成功的自主学者乐于承担学习的责任并尽可能地学好。

5. Views problems as challenges, not obstacles

5. 视问题为挑战而非阻碍

The successful self-directed learner embraces a growth mindset and is not easily thwarted when the going gets tough.

成功的自主学者拥有一个不断向前的思维倾向,在问题遭遇瓶颈的时候,他们不易被阻挠。

6. Is capable of self-discipline

6. 严于自律

Even when learning is enjoyable (which, for the successful self-directed learner, it usually is), it often requires discipline. The self-directed learner knows (or learns!)  how to develop and maintain discipline.

即使学习充满乐趣(对于成功的自主学者来说,通常如此),纪律必不可少。成功的自主学者明白(或学习)如何制定并遵守纪律。

7. Has a high degree of curiosity

7. 具有高度的求知欲

Successful self-directed learners have a high propensity for asking why– and lots of other questions.

成功的自主学者总喜欢问为什么,还有其他一些问题。

8. Has a strong desire to learn or change

8. 具有强烈的学习或改变的欲望

The successful self-directed learner is intrinsically motivated. She has a will to learn and sees learning as a positive path forward.

 成功的自主学者本身就很积极。她会主动地去学并且会将学习视为一种积极的成功的途径。

9. Is self-confident

9. 自信

Successful self-directed learners have a solid sense of “self-efficacy” – the belief that one is capable of performing in a certain manner to attain certain goals.

成功的自主学者具有一种稳定的自我效能感,他们相信一个人有能力通过特定的方法达到特定的目的。

10. Is able to use basic study skills

10. 能够运用基本的学习技巧

As I have said here before, skills like taking notes effectively are useful for a lifetime. The self-directed learner knows this.

如我之前所言,像有效地记笔记之类的技巧一直会有用。自主学者对于这一点非常清晰。

11. Organizes his or her time

11. 合理安排时间

While self-directed learning does not require the obsession with productivity that seems to be everywhere on the Interweb, the successful self-directed learner nonetheless knows how to find and manage time effectively to allow for learning.

自主学习不受生产率的影响,但是成功的自主学者知道如何获得并有效地利用时间来学习。

12. Sets an appropriate pace for learning

12. 制定合理的学习进度

The successful self-directed learner recognizes that learning is as much (if not more) about the process than the outcome and doesn’t try to do too much too fast.

成功的自主学者意识到学习的过程与结果同样重要,因此不会尝试做多做快。

13. Develops a plan for completing work

13. 为完成工作制定计划

Setting a plan is part of setting the pace and ultimately reaching the destination. The successful self-directed learner recognizes this.

制定计划是制定进度的一部分,最终可以达到目的。成功的自主学者也充分了解了这一点。

14. Has a tendency to be goal-oriented

14. 具有面向目标的趋势

While not all self-directed learners consciously set goals, they nonetheless tend to have an end in mind when they start down the learning path.

不是所有自主学者都有意识地制定目标,但是,在开始学习前,他们的思想里都倾向于获得一个结果。

15. Enjoys learning

15. 喜欢学习

The proverbial bottom line:the successful self-directed learner simply likes to learn.

谚语概要:成功的自主学者仅仅是很爱学习。

 

How well do these points describe you as a learner?

这些方面能够把你作为一个学者描述得多好呢?

How effectively are you cultivating these ways in those you teach (your children, you members, you employees, your students – you name it.)

你能多有效地将这些方面传授给(你的孩子,朋友,雇员,学生等等)?

Please comment and share

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Jeff

杰夫

P.S. – These “ways” have been extracted from a description in a 1977 survey that ultimately led to development of the Self-Directed Learning Readiness Scale, which was subsequently renamed the Learning Preferences Assessment. In the post above, I have expanded upon the characteristics highlighted in the description with my own comments.

附注:这些方面是从1977年的一份调查中提取,这份调查产生了《自主学习乐意程度》,最终更名为《学习喜好评估》。以上文字是以我自己的观点对其所描述的几个突出的特质进行的扩展。

A highly self-directed learner, based on the survey results, is one who exhibits initiative, independence, and persistence in learning; one who accepts responsibility for his or her own learning and views problems as challenges, not obstacles; one who is capable of self-discipline and has a high degree of curiosity; one who has a strong desire to learn or change and is self-confident; one who is able to use basic study skills, organize his or her time and set an appropriate pace for learning, and to develop a plan for completing work; one who enjoys learning and has a tendency to be goal-oriented. (Guglielmino, 1977/78, p.73)

一个高度自主的学者,基于以上调查结果,应该是一个积极主动,独立自主并且坚持学习的人;应该是一个为自己的学习承担责任,视问题为挑战而非阻碍的人;应该是一个严于自律,具有高度求知欲的人;应该是一个具有强烈欲望来学习或改变并且自信的人;应该是一个能利用基本学习技能,合理安排时间和学习进度,并且为完成工作制定计划的人;应该是一个喜欢学习并且有面向目标的倾向的人。(加格利尔米诺,1977/78,p.73)